The Napoleonic Revolution in Orders 13 items

Before the French Revolution and the Empire created by Napoleon, orders were chiefly of two sorts, religious or dynastic. Napoleon Bonaparte founded the most consequential order, in terms of the purpose and design of European official orders of merit, the Legion of Honor for meritorious service to the nation. Napoleon adapted the shape of the Maltese cross to have five arms instead of four, thereby eliminating the religious symbol in the design. The order was awarded to both French civilians and military and even occasionally to foreigners. The Legion of Honor comes in five classes: grand cross, grand officer, commander, officer and knight; the recipient receives the grade that matches his/her status in society. The badge is hung from a laurel wreath when the awarding government is a republic, or from a crown if it is an empire or a monarchy. All medals in this case are gifts of Robert L. Ross, 2018